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http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk:80/handle/2031/20
2015-05-04T00:44:53ZNon-traditional security issues (Ntsi) in Mekong Region : a theoretical and methodological approach
http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk:80/handle/2031/7435
Title: Non-traditional security issues (Ntsi) in Mekong Region : a theoretical and methodological approach
Authors: Paladini, Stefania (使美胜)
Abstract: Since more than 20 years after the end of Cold War, a new concept of
security has been imposing itself to the attention not only of IR scholars but to
policy makers, even included the ones traditionally attached to conservative and
realist views of world politics.
The emergence of transnational threats, the changing face of international
terrorism and other issues related to aspects before not immediately linked with
security (as health and food concerns) have been making evident to everybody
that it was necessary to adopt a wider and broader concept of security.
More than that, there are at present some issues of international relations
that can be successfully addressed only with the help of this broader and more
flexible approach.
Said so, the aim of this research is to show how the NTSI not only can
play an important role in understanding the international relations between China
and the countries of Mekong Area, but also that it represents .the most useful approach – as this is especially the case where the main threats, both at intrastate
and inter-state level, are exactly what is defined “no traditional security
issues”.
Therefore, we can set define as following the hypothesis of the research:
the NTS issues are the most useful tools to analyse the IR in some areas,
because sometimes the main threats are exactly what is defined “no traditional
security issues”, as in the case of the Upper Mekong Area.
As well, on these basis, it is possible to define a methodology, based on
NTSI, that combines different theoretical approaches - the (neo)realist, the
liberalist and the Constructivist one, as well as the recent Chinese strategic
thinking - to successful investigate the regional relations and Chinese foreign
policy in this area.
This thesis has been articulated in two main parts.
The first one consists of two chapters, which give the essential theoretical
framework of reference (useful because analysis of international relations
employing exclusively the NTSI-key is still rare) and a discussion on the adopted
methodology.
The second one is composed by the last three chapters, which are
devoted to discuss the choice of the area, the hypothesis, the main (NT) security
issues, and the case-study.
The obvious starting point is the exam of the concept of security, because
it is at the origin, both historically and logically, of the emerging of the NTSI in
International Relation studies.
Among the topic here covered will be: the extent and the relevance of the
new concept of security, and how 15 years transformed both the theory and the
practice of IR, in quite a revolutionary way; the most relevant theories for this
research; the (relative) irrelevance of the liberal school in its traditional
formulation for this kind of analysis; the centrality of realism in the present IR
debates – and the likelihood of its comeback after 9/11; the issue of the
governance and the evolution of the Westphalian state; the security dilemma – in
both realist and constructivist view; the definition of NTSI and their emersion in
IR literature; the notion in current IR; a general framework and some concept
definition.
A section of this part will take into exam some research and activities in
the field of NTSI with specific relation to Asia that have been flourishing in the
very last years.
The most important and comprehensive one is the Ford-IDSS project,
mainly based at Singapore, which is studying the NTSI in ASEAN Countries
according to the methodology of the Copenhagen School.
While of the utmost interest for the present research – in the sense that
they are implementing the same methodology to the analysis of common issues – there are however two important differences with the approach here
implemented:
1) The analysis of the NTSI is conducted essentially looking at the
internal policy of the single states – and not as a matter of
international relations. Here the effort is to show not only how
NTSI could be relevant in the relations between countries but
also that in some cases (the Mekong area) they can be the
primary issue of these relations.
2) The methodology adopted is purely the one used by the
Copenhagen school – while the approach here, as already noted,
is more variegated, in the way it will be later clarified, even if the
Copenhagen school still represents the main theoretical
reference.
Also, as above mentioned, in the last years even the academic circles in
China have seen a surge of interest about NTSI, with a few studies on the topic;
they will be considered briefly here, as useful to evaluate how much these
conceptual elaborations can adapt well with the Chinese political thinking; also,
the way in which this quite new topic for the general, realist-oriented, Chinese
political thought is regarded has of course a lot of relevance for the target area.
A possible and useful broadening of the research would be to investigate
also which is the status of discussion about NTSI in the other countries of the
Mekong area – as they national policies are of course affected by it.
A lack of time and resources will keep it out from the frame of the present
work – and can be the subject of further investigations.
The next necessary step is to devise a methodology to adopt.
As later clarified, in this research, however relying heavily on the
Copenhagen school’s approach, the methodology adopted could be considered a
mixed one – both involving constructivist and realist procedures, as well as taking
into account the critics moved to the Copenhagen school’s securitisation logic by
the new liberalist approach (Ikeberry).
This is the key part of the work, as once clarified the theoretical framework
and defined the methodology to adopt, everything will go on rather smoothly. The
successive steps will consisted in efforts for successfully collecting sources and
material and interpreting data on the basis of previous tool assessment.
The main hypothesis is the choice of Mekong area as the clearest example of
how not only NTSI issue approach are the most useful for analysing the IR of a
target area, but also that in some is the only real effective to the scope.
I will demonstrate as well the potential of the uses of NTSI for
generalization in IR in the Asia-Pacific region, even for cases where concerns of
traditional security are more pressing.
It is quite evident, in fact, that this approach represent the trend of the
future in IR, at least in the sense that even the traditional security issues now are
presenting some new and atypical aspects.
As in the tradition of the Copenhagen school, there will be 2 main
directories for the investigation, geographic and sector-based - involving the first
the 3 different levels of investigations – global, state and regional - and the
second an array of different sectors.
The choice done for the definition of sectors here is for a matrix of T/NT
issues&agents, which are very useful to better identify their characteristics (also
interesting in the case of already noted of terrorism).
For the very topic of this research, there are some NTSI more useful than
others, and that could be useful to analyse them at theoretical level, before look
at them in the practice.
The NTSI presented here will be the most relevant ones in the case of ir
between China and its southern neighbours – also described by using some of
the results & achievements of scholars that have successfully used these tools
for analysing South-East Asian issues.
The analysis will be conducted by looking at the way they are present in
the Mekong Region, and by four distinct points of view: 1 –the international
community, i.e, the IR debate – essentially the Western one – on the matter; the
Chinese one; the Mekong countries one; and the one – often not at all unitary –
of the NGO and civil society.
The four levels could be different even in the primary evaluation – namely,
if a topic is security-related or not – leave all the possible divergences of opinion.
The evaluation of their level of securitisation, in the way that will be
explained, will be undertaken as well.
A peculiarity for this geographic area in comparison of others for the same
level/sectors analysis is the relevance of NGOs and civil society on the level of
securitisation; actually, NGOs and civil society are not well developed in China
and in most Mekong countries – so their influence is considerably weaker than in
other cases.
A partial exception is represented by Thailand, as the study case of the
Mekong River Dams will show.
As a general classification, sectors in NTSI are divided in Environmental
security, Human security, Economic security and Political & social security – and
this classification will be here followed, even if some of them are in this case on
the borderline.
As well, the political&social security has been inserted as a part of the
human security paragraph, as, for the area in object, it has not an autonomous
importance to justify a separate discussion.
Following on, an important part of the analysis will be devoted to identify
and classify the tools of the trade for this specific case of international relation
analysis - with a focus about atypical data collection, analysis and evaluation.
The topics covered here is first a general review of somewhat atypical or
less classical tools for IR studies – and in which way they can be useful to
analyse new scenarios. Some of them are related to information technology or
just unthinkable, for political opportunity or cultural reasons, just a decade ago –
as the use of declassified intelligence.
Internet, furthermore, represented for social science a revolution that
nobody now can ignore.
Here, more specifically, I made extensive use of web sources for (i) intertextual
analysis and the search for hints of securitisation – covering the different
kind of approach and different traditions (ii) the collection and the analysis of
second hand sources and commentary texts –as press, publications of various
types, newsgroup, unofficial websites, blogs (iii) the archives of intelligence
sources – national and foreign governments, IIOO, military and private
consultancy companies – and the kind of possible stuff that can come from
declassification, open sources, covert action and finally espionage (iv) the references for the use of satellite imaginaries and GIS data and software (v)
some data about the impact of technology on the data collection.
A case study will be presented here, both as a way to show how
methodology works in practice and to verify if the Mekong region could be
positively identified as a Geographical Security complex in the Buzan’s point of
view.
The case study chosen is the Mekong River Dams, for the reasons will be
later explained.
In order to understand correctly the background, as well, the account will
be preceded by a brief outlook of the international relations between China and
Mekong Area Countries, their historical summary and recent evolutions.
Also the case study will show the possible role of international cooperation
in dealing with NTSI issues played by ASEAN, ARF and the others multilateral
institutions – as in solving and “securitising” these issues, especially at regional
level.
It is very well acknowledged that the states in the Asian-Pacific region are
still extremely concerned with state sovereignty – a fact that is commonly referred
to as the ASEAN way.
Nevertheless, despite their concern for upholding state sovereignty, they
showed to have realized that inevitably they have to make concessions – and the
areas selected for that are essentially the ones identified as NTSI. As the SARS-emergency in 2003 has showed, in NTSI issues cooperation and joint-efforts are
paramount for an effective management of threats.
This could again enhance the role of international and regional
organization and make instruments as CBMs and PD more useful and effective.
However the results, anyway, the possibility to consider the Mekong
region as a stand-alone RSC has to be rejected, for considerations that will be
presented later.
A brief, closing note on the sources employed on the present research, as
a wide range of sources has required to be taken into account.
I have explained, in the section devoted to the methodology, the special
caution due in the choice of texts – of different type.
Since textual analysis is widely used, it is very important the choice of the
sources – namely on which texts relying primarily.
In this section will be explained in which way the choices have been made
and on which basis. It will be discussed other aspects regarding the typology
often itself non-traditional of identification, search and collection.
An extensive reference list will be attached, for future studies.
Notes: CityU Call Number: UA832.8 .P34 2007; 372 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 345-372)2007-01-01T00:00:00ZAnalytical and numerical studies on local and nonlocal elastic bars in tension and neutralizer-based iterative methods
http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk:80/handle/2031/7427
Title: Analytical and numerical studies on local and nonlocal elastic bars in tension and neutralizer-based iterative methods
Authors: Zhu, Xiaowu (朱小武)
Abstract: In this thesis, we study some problems associated with both local and nonlocal elasticity
and, present the so-called neutralizer-based iterative methods for integral equations
of the second kind. The details are as follows.
The local problem is on the strain softening of materials. Strain-softening, i.e.,
the decrease of stress with the increase of strain, which is a common post-peak phenomenon that has been recorded for a variety of materials. Snap-back due to strain
softening may be one of the most interesting and the most common structural instability
phenomena observed in experiments. There have been many efforts in the past
decades to investigate strain-softening with localization experimentally, numerically,
and analytically. However, there is not any analytical study with general nonlinear
constitutive relations in the open literature which explores the role played by the convexity of the constitutive curve of the softening part and the coupling effect between
this convexity and the size. Also, both snap-back and snap-through were observed in
some experiments, but no analytical results are available for explaining the transition
from snap-back to snap-through.
Nonlocal elasticity is a growing direction of continuum mechanics nowadays.
There are many works contributed to this area. Due to the essential difficulty of the
integral equation, analytical approximate solutions are usually prohibited. Thus, many
existing literature devote to apply the approximate differential models suggested by
Eringen et al. However, one weak point of the approximations is that the possible boundary effects, which are present in the integral formulations, are neglected. Thus,
it would be desirable to have proper differential formulations which take into account
such effects. For this purpose, a first step is to know both qualitative and quantitative
behavior near the ends (e.g., the influences of the parameters). Thus, some analytical
solutions are needed to provide convincing results.
In this thesis, firstly for the local problem, we modify an existing model and set up
the stress-strain equations for the structure in the post-peak region, which are nonlinear
as compared with the bilinear case in the literature. After some analysis, we derive the
mathematical conditions for the occurrence of several important curves as frequently
observed in experiments, including the snap-through (which cannot be captured by the
bilinear assumptions). Two examples are also given to illustrate these cases, and the
post-peak curves are consistent with our theoretical predictions.
Secondly, for a static tension problem in nonlocal elasticity (the uniform case), we
apply an existing iterative method that are efficient for a special kind of kernel to handle
the resultant integral equation. By explicitly evaluating the integral in the second
iterative solution, we are able to get a good approximate analytical solution for this
problem. Some features of the nonlocal theory can then be closely examined, especially
the boundary effects. It seems that the analytical results obtained here would
give some insights into nonlocal theory, particularly for its applications in nanomaterials.
Moreover, in view of the boundary effects, we also present a new model for
nonuniform nonlocal bar-a varying volume fraction in the nonlocal phase. The numerical
results of different shapes of materials show that, as compared with a uniform
bar and that in local elasticity, the model herein shows more features, such as stress
concentration.
Thirdly, we present neutralizer-based iterative methods for integral equations of
the second kind. As is known to all, there is an abundant of numerical techniques
for solving integral equations, such as Neumann series, multi-grid method, GMRES and so on. Here, we introduce the concept of neutralizer, which is sometimes used
in dealing with integrals (e.g., the asymptotic expansions of integrals), to obtain the
neutralizer-based iterative method. Some features of such iterative method is numerically
explored. Several meaningful examples are given, showing that the methods
perform well as compared with some related methods.
Notes: CityU Call Number: QA931 .Z45 2012; vi, 102 leaves : ill. 30 cm.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2012.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves [95]-102)2012-01-01T00:00:00ZTheoretical investigation and numerical computation on meshless collocation method for solving partial differential equations
http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk:80/handle/2031/7426
Title: Theoretical investigation and numerical computation on meshless collocation method for solving partial differential equations
Authors: Zheng, Yanjun (鄭豔君)
Abstract: In the last decades, the use of radial basis functions (RBFs) has proven to be efficient
and robust in multivariate interpolation and solving partial differential equations
(PDEs). In this thesis we focus on the stability analysis using meshless collocation
method by RBFs for solving partial differential equations. The original umsymmetric
meshless collocation method was firstly introduced by E. Kansa in 1986. Hon and his
collaborators later extended the method to solve various nonlinear initial and boundary
value problems. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate the stability and convergence
of unsymmetric meshless collocation methods. Some theoretical results are
obtained based on the work of R. Schaback who gave a general framework for obtaining
error bounds and convergence of a large class of unsymmetric meshless numerical
methods in solving well-posed linear operator equations. For simplicity, we consider
in this thesis the standard Poisson boundary value problem (PBVP). Using the works
of F. J. Ward, H. Wendland and R. Arcangeli et al., we give in this thesis a stability
condition of meshless collocation methods in solving the PBVP. Based on the theoretical
stability result, in the second part of the thesis, we devise a meshless computational
algorithm for solving a real application problem arisen from financial option pricing
model. This involves the numerical techniques for solving a partial integro-differential
governing equation under some initial and boundary condition problem with unknown
free boundary. Numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness, accuracy, and
robustness of the meshless collocation method.
Notes: CityU Call Number: QA377 .Z4427 2010; iv, 93 leaves : ill. 30 cm.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2010.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-68)2010-01-01T00:00:00ZMathematical modeling and numerical study of multi-phase and multi-component flows in complex porous media
http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk:80/handle/2031/7425
Title: Mathematical modeling and numerical study of multi-phase and multi-component flows in complex porous media
Authors: Zhang, Qian (张谦)
Abstract: In this thesis, we study two multi-phase and multi-component fluid flows in clothing
assemblies and concrete materials, respectively. The former arises from the design
of functional clothing in textile industries and the latter can be found in construction
industries and structure engineering.
A typical clothing assembly consists of a thick fibrous batting sandwiched by two
thin covering fabrics. The outside cover is exposed to a cold environment with a lower
temperature and relative humidity while the inside cover is exposed to a gaseous mixture
of air and vapor with a higher temperature and relative humidity. In this application,
the heat and moisture transport is coupled in rather complicated mechanisms, the
phase changes, condensation/evaporation and fiber absorption, play an important role.
Firstly, we present some more precise formulations on condensation/evaporation, fiber
absorption and heat capacity to maintain the physical conservation of mass and energy.
Numerical results show that the proposed formulations are more realistic to describe
the phase changes. A human sweating model is simulated with a normal sweating rate
and a profuse sweating rate during exercise, respectively.
Secondly, since the environment temperature is usually lower than the freezing
point, there is an interface arising in the batting area of clothing assemblies. A Dirichlet
to Neumann map type interface method (DNMIM) is proposed for this problem
such that the moving interface can be captured implicitly and no extra iterations are
needed. An uncoupled semi-implicit finite volume method is applied for the system of
nonlinear parabolic equations. Two types of clothing assemblies are investigated
numerically and an artificial example is also presented to show the accuracy of our
algorithm.
Thirdly, we propose an uncoupled leap-frog finite difference method for a single component
model in porous textile materials. In this method, the leap-frog scheme is
applied in the temporal direction and a central finite difference approximation is used
in the spatial direction. We prove existence and uniqueness of the solution to the finite
difference system with optimal error estimates in both L2 and H1 norms. Numerical results
are presented to verify the theoretical accuracy. The numerical method presented
here can be easily extended to multi-component models.
Finally, we study a mathematical model of carbonation process in porous concrete
materials. Based on the physio-chemical mechanisms, the whole process can be
viewed as the multi-component flow coupled the carbon dioxide-moisture-calcium ion
transport. Since dissolution of calcium hydroxide plays a crucial role, we present a
modified formulation for the dissolution rate and more precise mathematical descriptions
on physio-chemical conservation. An uncoupled finite volume method with a
semi-implicit Euler scheme is proposed to solve the nonlinear parabolic equations.
Numerical simulations under the normal carbonation condition and the accelerated
carbonation condition are presented and analyzed, respectively.
Notes: CityU Call Number: QC173.4.P67 Z45 2012; vi, 115 leaves : ill. 30 cm.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2012.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves [104]-115)2012-01-01T00:00:00Z