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Title: Tone and tone sandhi in Suzhou
Other Titles: Suzhou yu sheng diao ji lian du bian diao
Authors: Lau, Sze Lok (劉思樂)
Department: Dept. of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics
Degree: Master of Philosophy
Issue Date: 2002
Publisher: City University of Hong Kong
Subjects: Wu dialects -- China -- Suzhou Shi (Jiangsu Sheng) -- Phonetics
Wu dialects -- China -- Suzhou Shi (Jiangsu Sheng) -- Phonology
Notes: CityU Call Number: PL1940.S8 L38 2002
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 162-165)
Thesis (M.Phil.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2002
vi, 226 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
Type: Thesis
Abstract: This study is a phonetic and phonology study of the tones and tone sandhis on the bisyllabic and polysyllabic compounds in the present-day Suzhou dialect. It differs from the past studies in that it uses the latest speech analysis technology to obtain objective frequency data of the tones on the monosyllables and tone contour patterns on speech units larger than a syllable. The frequency data referred to here are fundamental frequency values for the tones and tone contour patterns. The fundamental frequency corresponds to the rate of vocal cord vibration. The descriptions of the tones and tone sandhi based on the objective data in this study are expected to be more accurate than those based on impressionistic data. The study aims to (1) determine the fundamental frequency contours of (i) the seven citation tones in Suzhou, and (ii) the tone patterns on the bisyllabic, trisyllabic and quadrisyllabic compounds in the dialect; (2) formulate the tone sandhi rules; (3) compare the results with those in the past studies for similarities and differences; and (4) see whether the results of the study can in any way contribute to the theories of tone and tone sandhi. For the citation tones, results show that (I) there are seven F, contours of the seven citation tones in the speech of most of the Suzhou speakers, including two level tones differing in duration - yinping [44] and yinru [5], a falling tone - shangsheng [51], a falling-level tone - yinqu [522], a rising tone - yangru [23], a convex tone - yangqu [231], and a dipping tone - yangping [213]; (2) there are cross-speaker variations in the speech of male and female speakers. The F, contours of shangsheng and yinqu are almost identical for some of the speakers. They either look like the contour of shangsheng or yinqu. In other words, either shangsheng merges into yinqu, or yinqu merges into shangsheng in their speech; and (3) female speakers tend to have only six citation tones. In the study, only one of the five female speakers produces seven citation tones, whereas the other four female speakers produce six tone contours only. For the tone patterns on the bisyllables and polysyllables, results show that (1) the tone pattern on the compounds is determined by the tone on the first syllable, regardless of the tone on the following syllables, when the tone on the first syllable is long; (2) the tone pattern is also conditioned by the syllable type of the second syllable, when the first syllable is short; (3) two tone patterns occur unconditionally on the bisyllables and polysyllables, when the tone on the first syllable is yinqu; (4) the tone patterns on the compounds of varying length are similar, when the tone on the first syllable is the same, with the exception in which the yang tone is on the first syllable; (5) the number of tone patterns reduces as the length of the compounds increases, i.e., more tone patterns are on the bisyllables than on the trisyllables and quadrisyllables.
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