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|Title: ||Vowels and tones in Mei Xian Hakka : an acoustic and perceptual study|
|Other Titles: ||Mei Xian Kejia hua de yuan yin ji sheng diao : sheng xue ji gan zhi yan jiu|
梅縣客家話的元音及聲調 : 聲學及感知研究
|Authors: ||Cheung, Yuk Man ( 張玉敏)|
|Department: ||Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics|
|Degree: ||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||City University of Hong Kong|
|Subjects: ||Hakka dialects -- China -- Mei Xian (Guangdong Sheng)|
Chinese language -- Vowels.
Chinese language -- Tone.
Chinese language -- Dialects -- China -- Mei Xian (Guangdong Sheng)
|Notes: ||CityU Call Number: PL1860.M44 C45 2011|
xiv, 248 leaves : ill. 30 cm.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2011.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 192-202)
|Abstract: ||This dissertation presents a phonetic description of acoustic and perceptual properties of
tones as well as acoustic properties of vowels in Meixian Hakka. The vowel and tone
systems of Meixian Hakka have been described in the past studies. However, the basis
of such descriptions is mainly individual impression and there is a considerable
discrepancy in transcription among linguists. Due to the lack of experimental data
presented in the literature, it is worthwhile to investigate the sound system of Meixian
Hakka in acoustic and perceptual perspectives.
The F0 patterns of the citation tones in Meixian Hakka were analyzed based on the
raw and normalized data. It shows that there are acoustically six citation tones in
Meixian Hakka. Yin Ping is a mid level tone and is transcribed as ; Yang Ping is a
slight falling tone at the low frequency range and is transcribed as ; Shang Sheng is
a mid-high to low falling tone and is transcribed as ; Qu Sheng is a high to low
falling tone with a delayed falling contour and is transcribed as ; Yin Ru is a midhigh
to low falling short tone and is transcribed as ; Yang Ru is a high level short
tone and is transcribed as [55 or 5]. In spite of duration, the overall contour shape of
Shang Sheng resembles that of Yin Ru. The two tones have a simple falling tone with an
onset at the middle frequency range and an offset at the low frequency range.
The comparison of F0 patterns of the citation tones on vowels [i, a, u] indicates that
high vowels such as [i] and [u] tend to have a higher intrinsic fundamental frequency
(iF0) than low vowels such as [a]. The correlation between F0 and vowel height is
observed, not only in Meixian Hakka, but also in languages from different language
families as described in the past studies and such correlation is held to be linguistic
universal. There is a tendency for tones in CV(C) syllables to begin at a higher
frequency than tones in V(C) syllables. Such difference in F0 pattern between CV(C)
syllables and V(C) syllables may be associated with the effect of neighboring
consonants on the F0 onsets of the following tones.
Tone sandhi rules in Meixian Hakka are formulated in this research. The rules are
to be compared with the tone sandhi rules in the past studies. The demonstration of F0
patterns of tones in two-tone combinations has shown that there are three sandhi rules in
Meixian Hakka and they are as follows: (1) Yin Ping  is realized as a mid to high
rising tone  when it is followed by [11, 41, 41]; (2) Shang Sheng  is realized as
a mid level tone  when it is followed by [11, 41, 41]; and (3) Qu Sheng  is realized as a high level tone  when the second syllable is superimposed by [11, 41,51, 41]. Two sandhi forms from Yin Ping  and Qu Sheng  that are different from
the six citation tones in Meixian Hakka are found. They are correspondingly the high
rising tone  and the high level tone . The tone sandhi patterns observed in this
study are consistent with the patterns of Lü (2006) which were based on the acoustic
data, but not with other past studies which were mainly based on individual impression.
In addition to the acoustic characteristics of tones, the perceptual properties of
tones and the correlation between perceptual and acoustic characteristics of tones in
Meixian Hakka are evaluated. The potency of tonal height, slope, F0 onset and F0 offset
in the identification of the four long citation tones has been examined. It shows that
there is a strong correlation between tone perception and the acoustic characteristics of
tones in Meixian Hakka. Tonal height plays an important role in the identification of the
two level tones [33, 11]. A high F0 onset is an important cue for the identification of .
Slope is potent for the distinction between the three tones [51, 41, 11]. Stimuli with a
steep falling contour are highly identified as , whereas stimuli with a less steep
falling contour are identified as . Stimuli are identified as  when the slope of
falling is small. The perceptual results of this study show that not only slope but also
tonal height are important for the distinction between  and .
The acoustic characteristics and temporal organization of monophthongs,
diphthongs and triphthongs have been examined in Meixian Hakka. There are five
Meixian Hakka vowels in the open syllable and they are transcribed as [i, e, a, o, u].
Results indicate that the relative distance between mid and high vowels differs with
regard to vowel backness and speaker gender. The diphthongs in Meixian Hakka are
suggested to be divided into two categories according to the degree of resemblance
between formant patterns of the diphthong elements and formant patterns of their
corresponding target vowels in the acoustic space. Such claim is supported by the
temporal organization of diphthong. The results indicate that the dynamic nature of
diphthong in terms of F2 range of change is sufficient for the distinction among
diphthongs in a language such that the dynamic properties might be language-universal.
In consideration of the phonetics and phonology of Meixian Hakka, it is proposed that
there are 9 Meixian Hakka diphthongs and their narrow transcriptions are [ie, ia, io, iu,
ai, Ɔi, Ʊi, ao, ƐƱ]. Besides, it is suggested that there are two triphthongs in Meixian
Hakka and they are [iüi] and [iao].|
|Online Catalog Link: ||http://lib.cityu.edu.hk/record=b4086063|
|Appears in Collections:||CTL - Doctor of Philosophy |
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