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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2031/7911

Title: A semantic study of the adverbs cai and jiu in Mandarin Chinese
Other Titles: Pu tong hua fu ci "cai" he "jiu" de yu yi yan jiu
普通話副詞"才"和"就"的語義研究
Authors: Zhang, Lei (張蕾)
Department: Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics
Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: City University of Hong Kong
Subjects: Chinese language -- Adverb.
Chinese language -- Semantics.
Notes: CityU Call Number: PL1233 .Z428 2013
x, 308 p. : ill. 30 cm.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of Hong Kong, 2013.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 295-308)
Type: thesis
Abstract: The aim of this research is to conduct a comprehensive analysis on the semantics of the adverbs cai and jiu in Mandarin Chinese, and to deal with some syntactic issues of these two adverbs. Along the line of Paris (1987), I claim that the adverbs cai and jiu are linking adverbs whose core meaning is to establish a relation between two units, to be more specific, between the asserted value and the alternatives introduced, between the actual value and the reference value, and/or between the asserted value and the relevant open sentence. In addition, jiu can establish a relation between two successive events. Various semantic functions of both cai and jiu can be linked to this core meaning. It is argued that the semantics of cai is complex, as it can either have a single function, i.e. it serves as an exclusive adverb, a temporal adverb or a degree adverb, or hold a dual-function, i.e. it acts as both an exclusive adverb and a temporal adverb, or as both an exclusive adverb and a degree adverb. The adverb jiu can function as either a focus adverb, or a sufficiency operator, or the adverb jiu with the 'close to' meaning which including two cases: (a) jiu serves as a temporal adverb and (b) jiu indicates two events happened/will happen in quick succession. The adverbs cai and jiu share the common functions, i.e. both of them can serve as a focus adverb or a temporal adverb. As a focus adverb, cai/jiu builds up both a relation between the asserted value and its alternatives and a relation between the asserted value and the relevant open sentence. In the spirit of Krifra (1996, 2006) among others, I claim that the focus adverb cai/jiu associates with expressions containing focus rather than focus directly and then the position of focus will influence the alternative set. I put forward that neither 'rejected expectation' nor 'related to a scale' is the basic meaning of cai/jiu. It is assumed that the focus adverb cai/jiu follows the c-command constraint: In simple sentences, cai/jiu heads a Focus Phrase (henceforth FocP) and c-commands its interacting element or the trace of this constituent; in complex sentences, a Logical Form (henceforth LF) raising is involved, in which cai/jiu is raised to the head of FocP that takes Inflectional Phrase (thereafter IP) as its complement and the antecedent clause interacting with cai/jiu is moved to the specifier position (henceforth Spec) of FocP. Therefore, cai/jiu takes the whole sentence as its scope. These two focus adverbs show some differences: The focus adverb cai can be subsumed under the heading of exclusive adverbs, and it can associate with either an element to its left/right or the whole sentence. In the case of leftward association, whether cai relates a scale or not crucially depends on pragmatic factors. In the case of rightward association, cai always takes a scalar use. As a focus adverb, jiu can be further divided into three: the exclusive adverb jiu, the scalar adverb jiu and the adverb jiu indicating emphatic assertion. In the case of associating with an element to its right or the whole sentence, the focus adverb jiu is an exclusive adverb and can take either a scalar use or a non-scalar use highly depending on the context. In the case of leftward association, the focus adverb jiu either functions as a scalar adverb or indicates emphatic assertion. As a temporal adverb, cai/jiu establishes a relation between the actual time value denoted by cai/jiu and the reference time value, which can be illustrated on a temporal scale. The degree adverb cai builds up a relation between the conventional degree and the actual degree. In such a case, cai and the particle ne form a discontinuous constituent and signals that the relevant degree is high. As the name suggests, in dual-functional cases, cai has two functions, which not only establishes a relation between the actual value and the reference value, but also between the asserted value and the open sentence in question. Being a sufficiency operator jiu indicates that the antecedent is sufficient to make the consequent true, which establishes a sufficient relation between the antecedent and the consequent. In such a case, jiu usually occurs in the main clause of the complex sentence in question and interacts with the subordinate clause. Furthermore, a LF raising is involved. At LF, the sufficiency operator jiu is raised to the head of a Functional Phrase (thereafter FP) that takes IP as its complement and the subordinate clause as an IP-adjunct is moved to Spec of FP, thus jiu c-commands the trace of the antecedent clause and takes the whole sentence as its scope. In the case of jiu indicating that one event will happen/happened immediately after another event, jiu establishes a successive relation between the two events under consideration. In this dissertation, I explore the co-occurrence cases involved cai/jiu, and provide my own explanation on the cases where the relevant sentence needs to be licensed by particles like cai/jiu. It is argued that, in the case that zhiyou 'only (if)' or chufei 'only (if)' and cai co-occur in a sentence, zhiyou/chufei acts as a unary operator, which marks the only condition, and cai serves as an exclusive adverb. In a 'bixu...cai...' construction, bixu 'must' marks a necessary condition and cai is still an exclusive adverb. In a 'ruguo/yaoshi/jiran...jiu...' construction, ruguo 'if'/yaoshi 'if, suppose'/jiran 'since' functions as a unary operator, which modifies the antecedent, and jiu acts as a sufficiency operator. In a 'zhiyao...jiu...' construction, zhiyao marks the condition denoted by its interacting element as the only needed condition and the semantic function of jiu has two possibilities, i.e. jiu serves as either a scalar adverb or a sufficiency operator, depending on whether jiu relates to a scalar or not. It is assumed that, in some co-occurrence cases the appearance of cai/jiu is obligatory due to the following reason: zhiyou/chufei/bixu and ruguo/yaoshi/jiran/zhiyao are unary operators which cannot build up a relation between its interacting element and the rest of the sentence under consideration, which may lead to the interpretation of the relevant sentence unclear; cai being an exclusive adverb and jiu being a scalar adverb or a sufficiency operator can establish a semantic relation between its interacting element and the relevant open sentence and thus they can license the relevant sentence.
Online Catalog Link: http://lib.cityu.edu.hk/record=b4690794
Appears in Collections:CTL - Doctor of Philosophy

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